Pressure Vessel Reading List ______________________________

by Andrew C. Whyte, BSc, MSc, CEng, M.I.Mech.E.
© Copyright May 2014, January 2021
Web site: https://acwhyte.droppages.com

Here is a alphabetical short list of some of the books, papers and standards related to the design and analysis of pressure vessels, boilers and heat exchangers that I have found useful or essential reading. Some of these will now be out of print so a trip to a technical library might be necessary. The list is not exhaustive. Note that standards and codes are evolving documents. They can be subject to revision and addenda on a regular basis and they occasionally become obsolete.

  1. American Petroleum Institute (API). API 941-Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Plants. 5th edition. Washington, D.C., 1997.

  2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Advances in Bolted joint Technology - 1989. ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, PVP, Volume 158. Honolulu, 1989

  3. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Improved Technology for Critical Bolting Applications. ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference and Exhibition, MPC, Volume 26, Chicago, 1986.

  4. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 4 and 5.

  5. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Section XI, Rules for the Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components, Appendix A.

  6. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Criteria of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code for design by analysis in Sections III and VIII, division 2. 1969

  7. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Criteria for the Design of Elevated Temperature Class 1 Components in Section III, division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. May 1976

  8. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Nuclear Components, Code Case N-47, Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service, Section III division 1.

  9. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Code Case N-271, Simplified Method for Analysing Flat Face Flanges with Metal to Metal Contact Outside the Bolt Circle, Section III, Division 1, Class 2, 3, and MC construction.

  10. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Stress Indices and Stress Intensification Factors of Pressure Vessel and Piping Components. PVP-Vol. 50, 1981

  11. Babcock & Wilcox Company. Steam / its generation and use. 38th Edition, 1975

  12. Baker, E. H., Kovalevsky, L., Rish, F. L. Structural Analysis of Shells. McGraw-Hill 1972.

  13. Baker, R. G. The Welding of Pressure Vessel Steels. Climax Molybdenum Co. Limited.

  14. Banks, W.M. and Nash, D.H. editors. Pressure Equipment Technology, Theory and Practice. Professional Engineering Publishing, 2003.

  15. Bednar, H. H. Pressure Vessel Design Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981.

  16. Bergman, D.J. Temperature Gradients in Skirts Supports of Hot Vessels. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, May 1963.

  17. Bickell, M. B. and Ruiz, C. Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. MacMillan 1967.

  18. Bijlaard, P.P. Stresses from Local Loadings in Cylindrical Pressure Vessels. Transactions of the ASME, August 1955.

  19. Bijlaard, P.P. Stresses from Radial Loads and External Moments in Cylindrical Pressure Vessels. Welding Research Supplement, December 1955.

  20. Boyle, J.T. and Spence, J. Stress Analysis for Creep. Published Butterworths, 1983.

  21. British Standards Code of Practice CP 3003: Part 1: 1967 Lining of Vessels and Equipment for Chemical Processes.

  22. British Standards Institution BS 1113: 1999. Specification for design and manufacture of water-tube steam generating plant (including superheaters, reheaters and steel tube economizers).

  23. British Standards Institution BS1560: 1989 Circular flanges for pipes, valves, and fittings (Class designated), Section 3.1 Specification for Steel Flanges.

  24. British Standards Institution BS3580: 1964. Guide to Design Considerations on the Strength of Screw Threads.

  25. British Standards Institution BS5276: 1983. Pressure vessel details (dimensions) Part 2. Specification for saddle supports for horizontal cylindrical pressure vessels.

  26. British Standards Institution PD5500. Specification for Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels.

  27. British Standards Institution PD6433: 1969. Guide to the application of Stress Analysis to Design.

  28. British Standards Institution PD6438: 1969. A Review of Present Methods for Design of Bolted Flanges for Pressure Vessels.

  29. British Standards Institution PD6439: 1969. A Review of the Methods of Calculating Stresses due to Local Loads and Local Attachments of Pressure Vessels.

  30. British Standards Institution PD6493: 1991. Guidance on Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of Flaws in Fusion Welded Structures.

  31. British Standards Institution PD6510: 1983. A review of the present state of the art of assessing remanent life of pressure vessels and pressurized systems designed for high temperature service.

  32. British Standards Institution PD6550: 1989. Explanatory Supplement to BS5500:1988 "Specification for Unfired Pressure Vessels", Section three "Design", Part 1 Domed ends(heads), Part 2 Openings and branch connections, Part 3 Vessels under external pressure, Part 4 Heat exchanger tubesheets.

  33. Brownell, L. E. and Young, E. H. Process Equipment Design, Vessel Design. John Wiley & Sons 1959

  34. Burdekin, F.M. Practical Aspects of Fracture Mechanics in Engineering Design. Proceedings of the I.Mech.E. Volume 195, No. 12, 1981.

  35. Burdon, E.S. The Fatigue Factor in Engineering Design. Engineering Design, papers given at the University of Nottingham, edited by T.F. Roylance, Pergamon Press 1966.

  36. Burgreen, D. Design methods for Power Plant Structures. First Edition, Arcturus Publishers 1975

  37. Burgreen, D. Elements of Thermal Stress Analysis. First Edition, Arcturus Publishers 1971

  38. Burgreen, D. Pressure Vessel Analysis. First Edition, C. P. Press 1979

  39. Bushnell, D. Buckling of Shells - Pitfall for Designers. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Journal, Volume 19, No. 9, September 1981.

  40. Bushnell, D. BOSOR5 - A Computer Program for Buckling of Elastic-Plastic Complex Shells of Revolution Including Large Deflections and Creep. Lockheed Missiles Space Co., Sunnyvale California.

  41. Calladine, C. R. The Theory of Thin Shell Structures 1888 - 1988, Love Centenary Lecture. 2nd Edition, I.Mech.E. Proceedings 1988 Vol. 202 No. 42.

  42. Calladine, C. R. Theory of Shell Structures. Cambridge University Press 1983.

  43. Cameron, S.W. and Kennedy, A.F. Influence of Defect Assessment on the Design of Structures. Paper C10/80.

  44. Camillrei, D. et al. Material Strain Hardening in Pressure Vessel Design by Analysis. Proceedings of the I.Mech.E. Volume 221, part E: Journal of Process mechanical Engineering, 2007.

  45. Catudal, F.W. and Schneider, R.W. Stresses in a Pressure Vessel with Circumferential Ring Stiffeners. Welding Journal Research Supplement, 1957.

  46. CEGB Document R/H/R6-Rev. 3. Assessment of the Integrity of Structures Containing Defects. May 1986.

  47. Cheng, D.H. and Weil, N.A. The Junction Problem of Solid-Slotted Cylindrical Shells. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Applied Mechanics, June 1960.

  48. Childs, P. Non-metallic asbestos-free gaskets. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Volume 202, No. A1, 1988.

  49. Chuse, R. and Carson, B. E. Pressure Vessels The ASME Code Simplified. 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill 1993.

  50. Cranch, E.T. and Griffith, O.H. Discontinuity Thermal Stresses in Shallow Spherical Shells. ASME, First Int. Conf. on Pressure Vessel Technology, Delft, Netherlands, Sept.29-Oct. 2, 1969.

  51. Crisp, R.J. A Computer Survey of the Behaviour of Torispherical Drum Heads Under Internal Pressure Loading. Part I: The Elastic Analysis, and Part II: The Elastic-Plastic Analysis. Nuclear Engineering and Design, North-Holland Publishing, 1970.

  52. Csonka, P. Theory and Practice of Membrane Shells. VDI Verlag 1987.

  53. Dawes, M.G. and Denys, R. BS5500 Appendix D: An Assessment Based on Wide Plate Brittle Fracture Test Data. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Volume 15, Issue 3, 1984.

  54. Decock, J. Determination of stress concentration factors and fatigue assessment of flush and extruded nozzles in welded pressure vessels. ASME 2nd International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology, Part II, October 1973.

  55. Den Hartog, J. P. Advanced Strength of Materials. McGraw-Hill 1952.

  56. Donald, M.B. and Salomon, J.M. The Behaviour of Narrow-Faced, Bolted, Flanged Joints Under the influence of Internal Pressure. Proceedings of the I.Mech.E, Volume 173, No. 17, 1959.

  57. Duthie, G. & Tooth, A. S., Local loads on cylindrical vessels-A Fourier series solution. In Behauiour of Thin Wall Structures (eds J. Rhodes and J. Spence). Elsevier, 1984.

  58. Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI). Flaw Evaluation Procedures ASME Section XI. NP-719-SR.

  59. EN 13445 "Unfired pressure vessels" Background to the rules in Part 3 Design. Editors: Guy Baylac & Danielle Koplewicz, Union de Normalisation de la Mécanique, Issue 2, 2004

  60. Escoe, A. K. Mechanical Design of Process Systems Volume 1 Piping and Pressure Vessels. Gulf Publishing Company 1994

  61. Ewalds, H.L. and Wanhill, R.J.H. Fracture Mechanics. Edward Arnold Publishers, 1984.

  62. Eyers, J. Faults in Design Reveald by Service Failures(2). Engineering Design, papers given at the University of Nottingham, edited by T.F. Roylance, Pergamon Press 1966.

  63. Fairbairn, W. edited and completed by William Pole. The Life of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart. David & Charles Reprints 1970.

  64. Flügge, W. Stresses in Shells. 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag 1973.

  65. Fraas, A. P. Heat Exchanger Design. Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1989

  66. Eringen, A.C., Naghdi, A.K. and Thiel, C.C. State of Stress in a Circular Cylindrical Shell with a Circular Hole. Welding Research Council Bulletin 102, January 1965.

  67. Eringen, A.C. and Suhubi, E.S. Stress Distribution at Two Normally Intersecting Cylindrical Shells. Nuclear Structural Engineering, North-Holland Publishing, 1965.

  68. Galletly, G.D. Edge Influence Coefficients for Toroidal Shells of Positive Gaussian Curvature. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, February 1960.

  69. Galletly, G.D. Plastic Buckling of Torispherical and Ellipsoidal Shells Subjected to Internal Pressure. Proceedings of the I.Mech.E. Volume 195, No. 26, 1981.

  70. Galletly, G.D. Torispherical Shells under Internal Pressure - Failure due to Asymmetric Plastic Buckling or Axisymmetric Yielding. Proceedings of I.Mech.E. Vol. 199, No. C3, 1985.

  71. Galletly, G.D. Design Equations for Preventing Buckling in Fabricated Torispherical Shells Subjected to Internal Pressure. Proceedings of I.Mech.E. Vol. 200, No. A2, 1986.

  72. Galletly, G.D. Buckling of Shallow Dished Ends Under external pressure - a caveat. Proceedings of I.Mech.E. Vol. 201, No. C5, 1987.

  73. Gardner, K.A. Heat-Exchanger Tube-Sheet Design. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Applied Mechanics, December 1948.

  74. Gardner, K.A. Heat-Exchanger Tube-Sheet Design - 3. U-Tube and Bayonet-Tube Sheets. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Applied Mechanics, March 1960.

  75. Gilbert, N. Procedure for the Determination of Thermal Stresses in 3-Shell Junctions Common to Pressure Vessel Construction. ASME publication presented at the Joint Petroleum Mechanical Engineering and Pressure Vessel & Piping Conference, Mexico, September 1976.

  76. Gill, S. S. The Stress Analysis of Pressure Vessels and Pressure Vessel Components. Pergamon Press 1970.

  77. Goodall, I.W. et al. An Assessment Procedure for the High Temperature Responce of Structures, Nuclear Electric assessment procedure R5., Issue 1, 1990.

  78. Grafton, P.E. and Strome, D.R. Analysis of Axisymetrical Shells by the Direct Stiffness Method. AIAA Journal. Volume 1, No. 10, october 1963.

  79. Gray, T. G. F. and Spence, J. Rational welding design. 2nd Edition, Butterworths 1982.

  80. Guidelines related to the Pressure equipment Directive 97/23/EC(PED).

  81. Gulf and Western Manufacturing Company. Modern Flange Design. Energy Products Group Bulletin 502.

  82. Harvey, J. F. Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1974.

  83. Hayhurst, D.R. Recent Developments in High Temperature Design Methods. Chartered mechanical Engineer, February 1979.

  84. Hetényi, M. Beams on Elastic Foundation. The University of Michigan Press 1974.

  85. Hetényi, M. Spherical Shells Subject to Axial Symmetrical Bending. Vol. 5, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineers, 1938.

  86. Hicks, J.G. Welded Joint Design. 2nd edition, BSP Professional Books, 1987.

  87. Hitchings, D., editor. Introduction to Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis. NAFEMS publication, 1992.

  88. Hitchings, D., editor. A Finite Element Dynamics Primer. NAFEMS publication, 1992.

  89. HMSO, Health & Safety Executive. The Assessment of Pressure Vessels Operating at Low Temperatures, Appendix 3, Procedure for assessing material ductility properties using BS 5500: 1991, Appendix D.

  90. Hoff, N.J. Rules and Methods of Stress and Stability Calculations in the Presence of Creep. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Volume 45, September 1978.

  91. Horger, O.J. editor. ASME Handbook, Metals Engineering - Design. 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill, 1965.

  92. Houston, R. British Standards Institution Boiler and Pressure Vessel Design Criteria, Pressure Vessel Codes and Standards, Developments in Pressure Vessel Technology. Edited by R.W. Nichols, Elsevier Applied Science 1987.

  93. International Atomic Energy Agency. Creep-fatigue damage rules for advanced reactor design. Proceedings IAEA-TECDOC-933, Manchester, June 1996.

  94. Jawad, M. H. and Farr, J. R. Structural Analysis & Design of Process Equipment. 2nd Edition, Wiley Interscience 1989.

  95. Jones, J.W. Finite Element Analysis of Pressure vessels. The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 58th General meeting, 1989.

  96. Kelley, F. S. A General Fatigue Evaluation Method (Elastic Stress or Plastic Strain with Constant or Varying Principal Direction). ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 102, August 1980.

  97. Kendrick, S. Design for External Pressure Using General Criteria. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Volume 24, No. 4, 1982.

  98. Kilborn, D.F. The Spacing of Bolts in Flanged Joints. Transactions of the Institute of Marine Engineers, Volume 87, 1975.

  99. Kitching, R. and Zarrabi, K. Thermal Stresses in Cylindrical Vessels with Limpet Coils. I.Mech.E. Journal of Strain Analysis, Volume 14, No. 4, 1979.

  100. Kohan, A. L. Pressure Vessel Systems A User's Guide to Safe Operations and Maintenance McGraw-Hill 1987.

  101. Kraus,H. Elastic Stresses in Pressure Vessel Heads. Welding Research Council Bulletin 129, April 1968.

  102. Kraus,H. Part 3: Interpretive Report on Gasket Leakage Testing. Welding Research Council Bulletin 262, October 1980.

  103. Kroenke, W.C. Classfication of Finite Element Stresses According to ASME Section III Stress Categories. Pressure Vessels & Piping: Analysis and Computers, Conference on Pressure Vessels, Florida, June 1974.

  104. Lake, G.F. and Boyd, G. Design of Bolted, Flanged Joints of Pressure Vessels. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Volume 171, 1957 plus communications and author's replies.

  105. Lekkerkerker, J.G. Stress Concentration Around Circular holes in Cylindrical Shells. Applied Mechanics, 1966.

  106. Lancaster, J. F. Chapter 5, Material Selection. Pressure Vessel Technology, edited by R.W. Nichols, Elsevier Publishing 1971.

  107. Leckie, F. A. and Penny, R. K. Solutions for the Stresses at Nozzles in Pressure Vessels. Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 90, 1963.

  108. Love, A. E. H. The Small Free Vibrations and Deformation of a Thin Elastic Shell. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1888, 179A, 491-546.

  109. Love, A. E. H. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. 4th Edition, Cambridge University Press 1927.

  110. Maddox, S. J. Fatigue of Welded Structures. 2nd Edition, Abington Publishing 1991.

  111. Manson, S.S. Fatigue: A Complex Subject - Some Simple Approximations. Experimental Mechanics, July 1965.

  112. Meck, H.R. Analysis of Bolt Spacing for Flange Sealing. Transactions of the ASME, February 1969.

  113. Miller, D. R. Thermal Stress Ratchet Mechanism in Pressure Vessels. ASME Transactions, Vol. 81, Ser. D, No. 2, 1959.

  114. Milne, I. Calculating the Defect Tolerance of Ferritic Steel Structures: A Comparison of the B.S.I. Document 'Draft Standard Rules for the Derivation of Acceptance levels for Defects in Fusion Welded Joints' and the C.E.G.B. Procedures 'Assessment of the Integrity of Structures Containing Defects'. Central Electricity Generating Board report RD/L/N 88/78, September 1978.

  115. Modern Flange Design, 6th Edition. Energy Products Group, Bulletin 502.

  116. Moss, D. Pressure Vessel Design Manual. 3rd Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2004.

  117. Murray, N. W. and Stuart, D. G. Behaviour of large taper hub flanges. Symposium on Pressure Vessel Research Towards Better Design. I.Mech.E. 1961.

  118. NAFEMS publication. A Finite Element Primer. National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards, East Kilbride, Glasgow, 1986, reprinted 1987 with amendments.

  119. Neuber, H. Theory of Notch Stresses: Principles for Exact Stress Calculation. Navy Department, David Taylor Model Basin, Washington, D.C., Translation 74, November 1945.

  120. Nichols, R.W. Pressure Vessel Technology. Published Elsevier Applied Science, 1971.

  121. Nuclear Electric Assessment Procedure R5. An Assessment Procedure for the High Temperature Response of Structures. Issue 1, October 1990.

  122. O'Donnell, W. J. A Study of Perforated Plates with Square Penetration Patterns. Welding Reserch Council bulletin 124, September 1967.

  123. O'Donnell, W. J. and Langer, B. F. Design of Perforated Plates. ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping, Design and Analysis, Volume 2, Components and Structural Dynamics.

  124. O'Donnell, W.J. and Porowski, J. Part 3: Upper Bounds for Accumulated Strains Due to Creep Ratcheting.

  125. Paul, B. Shrink Fits of Moderately Long Bands on Thin-Walled Cylinders. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, August 1962.

  126. Payne, D.J. Numerical Analysis of the Axi-symmetric Bending of a Toroidal Shell. I.Mech.E. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Volume 4, No. 4, 1962.

  127. Peng, L.C. Local Stresses in Vessels - Notes on the Application of WRC-107 and WRC-297. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Volume 110, February 1988.

  128. Peterson, R. E. Stress Concentration Factors. J. Wiley & Sons 1974.

  129. Welding Research Council Bulletin 195, June 1974 (reprinted March 1976).

  130. Polak, P. Designing for Strength. MacMillan Press 1982.

  131. Popov, E.P. et al. Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Some Pressure Vessel Heads. ASME paper 69-WA/PVP-7, 1969.

  132. Porowski, J.S. and O'Donnell, W.J. Limit Design of Perforated Cylindrical Shells per ASME Code. Transactions of the ASME, Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes, November 1977.

  133. Port, R. D. and Herro, H. M. The Nalco Guide to Boiler Failure Analysis. McGraw-Hill 1991.

  134. Port, R. D. and Herro, H. M. The Nalco Guide to Cooling Water Systems Failure Analysis. McGraw-Hill 1993.

  135. Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC(PED) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 May 1997 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning pressure equipment.

  136. Radaj, D. Design and Analysis of Fatigue Resistant Welded Structures. Abington Publishing 1990.

  137. Radzimovsky, E.I. Bolt Design for Repeated Loading, A new approach to strength calculations for bolts subjected to periodically changing loads. Machine Design, November 1952.

  138. Raut, H.D. and Leon, G.F. Report of Gasket Factor Tests. Welding Research Council Bulletin 233, December 1977.

  139. Roche, R. L. Practical procedures for stress classification Design Codes and Structural Mechanics. Edited by R.L. Roche and J.R. Farr, Elsevier Applied Science 1989.

  140. Rodabaugh, E.C. and Atterbury, T.J. Stresses in Tapered Transition Joints in Pipelines and Pressure vessels. ASME Journal for Industry, August 1962.

  141. Ross, C.T.F. Axisymmetric Deformation of a Varying Thickness Cylinder Under a Varying Lateral Pressure. Transactions of the North East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders (NECIES), Volume 87, 1970.

  142. Ross, C.T.F. Finite Element Programs for Axisymmetric Problems in Engineering. Ellis Horwood 1984.

  143. Ruiz, C. Static and Dynamic Seals: Part 1 - Static Seals. ASME paper 76-DET-83, 1976.

  144. Ruiz, C and Koenigsberger, F. Design for Strength and Production. MacMillan & Co. Ltd. 1970

  145. Saunders, E. A. D. Heat Exchangers, Selection, Design and Construction. Longman Scientific & Technical, 1988

  146. Save, M.A. and Massonnet, C.E. Plastic Analysis and Design of Plates, Shells and Disks. North-Holland Publishing Company, 1972.

  147. Schneider, R.W. Flat Face Flanges with Metal-to-Metal Contact Beyond the Bolt Circle. ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Volume 90, No. 1, 1968.

  148. Singh, K. P. and Soler, A. I. Mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers. Arcturus Publishers 1984.

  149. Snow, A.L. and Langer, B.F. Low-Cycle Fatigue of Large-Diameter Bolts. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, February 1967.

  150. Soehrens, J.E. The Design of Floatingheads for Heat-Exchangers. ASME paper 57-A-247, 1957.

  151. Spence, J. and Tooth, A. S. editors. Pressure Vessel Design, Concepts and Principals. E & F N Spon 1994.

  152. Spera, D.A. Analysis of Elastic-Plastic Shells of Revolution Containing Discontinuites. AIAA Journal, Volume 1, No. 11, November 1963.

  153. Stanley, P. editor. Fracture Mechanics in Engineering Practice. Applied Science Publishers, London, 1977.

  154. Starczewski, M. Non-Circular Pressure vessels - Some guidance notes for designers. British Engine Technical Report Volume XIV, 1981.

  155. Swedish Pressure Vessel Code. Chapter 18 K. Integral flanges. 1973.

  156. Taylor, C. E. Simplification of the Analysis of Stress in Conical Shells. University of Illinois, TAM Report 385, April 1974.

  157. Taylor, C. E. and Wenk, E. Analysis of Stresses in the Conical Elements of Shell Structures. Proceedings of the Second U. S. National Congress of Applied Mechanics, 1954.

  158. Thielsch, H. Defects and Failures in Pressure Vessels and Piping. Published van Nostrand, 1965.

  159. Timoshenko, S. P. and Woinowsky-Krieger, S. Theory of Plates and Shells. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill 1959.

  160. Tooth, A.S. and Duthie, G. The Elastic Analysis of Horizontal Cylindrical Vessels Supported by Saddles. EUROMECH 136 "Local problems in Plates and Shells", Warsaw, 1980.

  161. Tooth, A.S. and Nash, D.H. The Use of a Microcomputer in the Design of Cylindrical Pressure Vessels. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1986.

  162. Turner, C. E. Introduction to Plate and Shell Theory. Longmans 1965.

  163. Turner, C. E. Study of the Symmetrical Elastic Loading of some Shells of Revolution, with Special Reference to Toroidal Elements. Proceedings of the I.Mech.E. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Volume 1, No. 2, 1959.

  164. Ugural, A. C. Stresses in Plates and Shells. McGraw-Hill 1981.

  165. Waters, E.O. and Schneider, R.W. Part 1: Derivation of ASME Code Formulas for the Design of Reverse Flanges. Welding Research Council Bulletin 262, October 1980.

  166. Waters, E. O., Wesstrom, D. B., Rossheim, D. B., Williams, F. S. G. Formulas for Stresses in Bolted Flange Connections. ASME Transactions 1937.

  167. Watts, G. W. and Burrows, W. R. The Basic Elastic Theory of Vessel Heads Under Internal Pressure. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, Paper No. 47 A-153, March 1949.

  168. Webjorn, J. and Schneider, R.W. Part 2: Functional Test of a Vessel with Compact Flanges in Metal-to-Metal Contact. Welding Research Council Bulletin 262, October 1980.

  169. Weil, N. A. and Murphy, J. J. Design and Analysis of Welded Pressure Vessel Skirt Supports. ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, February 1960.

  170. Wichman, K.R., Hopper, A.G. and Mershon, J.L. Local Stresses In Spherical And Cylindrical Shells Due To External Loadings. Welding Research Council Bulletin 107, August 1965 revised March 1979.

  171. Wong, H.Y. Handbook of essential formulae and data on Heat Transfer for Engineers. Longman Publishers, 1977.

  172. Wright, W.B. Linear and Nonlinear Thermal Gradients - An Interpretation of the Nuclear Components Code - Section III. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 1972

  173. Wyatt, L. M. Materials of Construction for Power Plant. Applied Science Publishers 1976.

  174. Young, W. C. et al, Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain. 8th Edition McGraw-Hill 2011.

  175. Zick, L.P. Stresses in Large Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports. The Welding Journal Research Supplement, September 1951.